A book by Nobel Peace Prize Nominee, Political Scientist Michael Haas,
with a Foreword by Nuremberg Chief Prosecutor Benjamin B. Ferencz
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Click on each type of war crime for the documentary basis and an example.

LEGALITY OF WAR
Armed aggression, under current international law, is prohibited unless there is an urgent, immediate need to respond to an ongoing attack from another country. Even in the case of legitimate self-defense, the matter must be approved subsequently by the UN Security Council.
#1      Waging Aggressive War
#2      Aiding Rebels in a Civil War
#3      Threatening Aggressive War
#4      Planning & Preparing for a War of Aggression
#5      Conspiracy to Wage War
#6      Propaganda For War

CONDUCT OF WAR
The principle that innocent civilians should be protected from the ravages of warfare has been established for 1,600 years. In the present, that principle has been extended to prohibitions on various targets, cruel weapons, undisciplined behavior by soldiers and commanders, and on the use of mercenaries.
Prohibited Targets
#7      Failure to Observe the Neutrality of a Hospital
#8      Destruction of Undefended Targets
#9      Bombing of Edifices Devoted to Art, Charity, Religion, & Science
#10    Failure to Compensate
#11    Naval Bombardment of Undefended Buildings, Dwellings, Towns, & Villages
#12    Bombing of Neutral Countries
#13    Failure to Observe the Neutrality of Hospital Employees
#14    Failure to Respect the Neutrality of a Voluntary Aid Society
#15    Hostile Acts on the Ground Directed at a Museum
#16    Indiscriminate Attacks Against Civilians
#17    Failure to Protect Cultural Property
Prohibited Weapons
#18    Use of Arms and Projectiles to Cause Superfluous Injury
#19    Use of Napalm
#20    Use of White Phosphorous
#21    Use of Depleted Uranium Weapons
Misconduct by Soldiers
#22    Killing or Wounding Civilians Treacherously
#23    Failure to Accept the Surrender of Combatants
#24    Pillage
#25    Failure to Attend to the Wounded
#26    Failing to Provide Proper Burials to Enemy Soldiers Killed in Combat
#27    Excessive Targeting of Civilians
Misconduct by Commanders
#28    Failure to Notify Authorities of Bombardments
#29    Indiscriminate Naval Bombardments
#30    Naval Bombardments Without Warning
#31    Extrajudicial Executions
#32    Reprisals Against Innocent Civilians
#33    Depriving Civilians of Food & Drinking Water
#34    Excessive Military Force
#35    Failure to Provide Battlefield Officers with Appropriate Legal Advice
#36    Failure to Prosecute Commanding Officers for Failure to Stop Battlefield Offenses
#37    Failure of Commanding Officers to Report Battlefield Offenses to Their Superiors
#38    Failure of Commanding Officers to Ensure That Subordinates Understand Geneva Convention Obligations Regarding the Conduct of Warfare
#39    Failure of Commanding Officers to Prevent Subordinates from Plotting War Crimes on the Battlefield
#40   Failure of Commanding Officers to Discipline or Prosecute Subordinates Who Commit War Crimes on the Battlefield
Prohibited Combatants
#41    Funding War Mercenaries
#42    Mercenaries Have Engaged in Combat

MISTREATMENT OF PRISONERS
The television series “Hogan’s Heroes” portrays a prison camp for Americans in Nazi Germany during World War II. Although the series takes excessive liberties for comedic purposes, the basic conditions of the camp in many ways conform to the requirements of the Prisoner of War (POW) Convention of 1929 and earlier treaties. Germany, nevertheless, sometimes used prisoner compounds as interrogation centers. When the Third Geneva Convention was written in 1949, the excesses of the Japanese and Nazis informed provisions to outlaw many practices. When the Americans initially rounded up suspected terrorists in Afghanistan and Iraq, sending some to Guantánamo, the initial military commanders enforced Geneva Convention standards. Soon, President Bush rescinded the Geneva Convention requirements, and new treatment procedures were developed on the fly. The result has been scandalous.
Violating Standards of Decency
#43    Inhumane Treatment
#44    Depriving Prisoners of Their Property
#45    Religious Mistreatment
#46    Displaying Prisoners
#47    Denial of Decent Burial of Prisoners
#48    Cruel Treatment
#49    Outrages upon Personal Dignity
Interrogation Methods
#50    Reprisals Against Prisoners
#51    Interrogation Beyond Name, Rank, and Serial Number
#52    Coercive Techniques
#53    Threats & Unpleasant Treatment
#54    Systematic Insults
#55    Torture
#56    Taking Hostages
#57    Failure to Prevent Torture
#58    Complicity or Participation in Torture
#59    Failure to Protect Prisoners from Intimidation
#60    Use of Weapons Against Prisoners
Unacceptable Living Conditions
#61    Inadequate Food
#62    Inadequate Clothing
#63    Inadequate Shelter
#64    Cramped Housing
#65    Close Confinement
#66    Internment on Ships at Sea
#67    Internment in Penitentiaries
#68    Inadequate Heating
#69    Inadequate Lighting
#70    Habitual Diet Ignored
#71    Prisoners Disallowed from Food Preparation
#72    Solitary Confinement
#73    Prisoners Not Allowed to Eat Together
#74    Lack of Prison Canteens
#75    Prisoners Not Allowed to Receive Funds to Purchase Personal Items
Health Aspects
#76    Mistreatment of Wounded Prisoners
#77    Killing & Wounding Prisoners Treacherously
#78    Unhygienic Housing
#79    Water Deprivation
#80    Unhealthful Incarceration
#81    Murder
#82    Mutilation
#83    Reckless Endangerment of Health in Prison
#84    Involuntary Experimentation
#85    Reckless Endangerment of Health During Transfers
#86    Denial of Medical Care
#87    Failure to Provide Treatment for Medically Incompetent Prisoners
#88    Locating a Prison in a Combat Zone
#89    Inadequate Nutrition
#90    Inadequate Infirmary, Surgical, & Hospital Care
#91    Failure to Provide Care for the Disabled
#92    Failure to Keep Proper Medical Records
#93    Failure to Weigh Prisoners
#94    Failure to Detect or Treat Contagious Diseases
#95    Failure to Provide Appropriate Medical Records upon Release
#96    Failure to Properly Annotate Death Certificates
#97    Failure to Properly Investigate Causes of Prisoner Deaths
#98    Violating Medical Ethics
#99    Failure to Rehabilitate Victims of Torture
Activities Disallowed
#100    Tobacco Deprivation
#101    Exercise Deprivation
#102    Inadequate Recreational Opportunities
Transfers
#103    Prisoners Transferred to Countries Practicing Torture
#104   Failure to Recall Prisoners Who Have Been Tortured After Their Transfer to Other Countries
#105    Inhumane Transfer of Prisoners
#106    Failure to Notify Prisoners in Advance of Transfers
Complaints, Representatives, and Discipline
#107    Failure to Allow Prisoners to Complain About Captivity Conditions
#108    Failure to Respond to Complaints of Prisoners Alleging Torture
#109    Failure to Allow Prisoners to Elect Representatives
#110    Repeated Punishment
#111    Punishment for Offenses Not Applied to American Soldiers
#112    Corporal Punishment
#113    Confinement Without Daylight
#114    Unequal Treatment of Disciplined Prisoners
#115    Punishment Exceeding Thirty Days
#116    Discipline Without Following Procedures
Juridical Aspects
#117    Failure to Treat Captured Belligerents as Prisoners of War
#118    Secret Detainees
#119    Failure to Advise Prisoners of Their Right to Counsel
#120    Denial of Right to Counsel
#121    Failure to Try Accused Prisoners in a Regularly Constituted Court
#122    Sentencing Without Having a Regularly Constituted Court
#123    Failure to Use a Competent Tribunal to Determine Whether to Detain Prisoners
#124    Prisoners Have Been Forced to Renounce Their Rights
#125    Depriving Prisoners of Identity Documents
#126    Failure to Disseminate Geneva Convention Protections
#127    Failure to Post the Geneva Conventions
#128    Failure to Translate the Geneva Conventions for Prisoners
#129    Failure to Publicly State How Prisoners Are to Be Handled
#130    Failure to Transmit Legal Documents to Prisoners
#131    Failure to Allow Visits Between Lawyers and Prisoners
#132    Failure to Put Prisoners on Trial in Impartial Tribunals
#133    Forced Self-Incrimination
#134    Failure to Provide Speedy Trials
#135    Denial of the Right to Call Witnesses
#136    Failure to Advise Prisoners of Geneva Convention Rights
#137    Failure to Facilitate Selection by Prisoners of Their Attorneys
#138    Failure to Allow the United Nations to Provide Attorneys for Prisoners
#139    Failure to Provide Attorneys Free Access to Prisoners
#140    Failure to Provide Privacy During Visits Between Attorneys & Prisoners
#141    Failure to Translate Legal Documents for Prisoners
#142    No Right of Appeal
#143    Failure to Inform Prisoners Promptly of Charges Against Them
#144    Failure to Inform Prisoners’ Attorneys of Charges Against Prisoners Whom They Represent
#145    Secrecy in Judicial Proceedings
#146    Failure to Prosecute Those Responsible for Prisoner Deaths
#147    Absolving Liability for Redress
#148    Refusal to Allow Cross-Examinations
#149    Failure to Provide Appropriate Legal Advice to Military Commanders Regarding Prisoners
#150    Failure to Prosecute Commanding Officers Taking No Action to Stop Abuse of Prisoners
#151   Failure of Commanding Officers to Report Offenses Against Prisoners to Superiors
#152    Failure of Commanding Officers to Ensure That Subordinates Understand Geneva Convention Obligations Regarding Prisoners
#153    Failure of Commanding Officers to Prevent or Stop Subordinates from Mistreating Prisoners
#154   Failure of Commanding Officers to Discipline or Prosecute Subordinates Who Mistreat Prisoners
#155    Attempting to Justify Torture
#156    Failure to Arrest & Prosecute Torturers
#157    Failure to Investigate Allegations of Torture
#158    Refusal to Cooperate in Investigations & Prosecutions of Torturers
#159    Failure to Compensate Victims of Torture
#160    Admission of Statements Resulting from Torture into Evidence
Relations Between Prisoners and Outside Groups
#161    Refusal to Allow the Red Cross Access to Prisoners
#162    Failure to Establish a Central Prisoner of War Agency
#163    Failure to Request Assistance from a Humanitarian Organization
#164   Prisoners Prevented from Contacting the Red Cross and the Red Crescent Society
#165    Parcels to Prisoners Disallowed
#166    Failure to Allow Prisoners to Complain to UN Bodies
#167    Failure to Share Inquest Investigations with the UN
#168    Failure to Provide Opportunities for Nongovernmental Organizations to Assist the Religious & Other Needs of Prisoners
#169    Denial of Access of UN Agencies to Places of Departure, Passage, Arrival, & Incarceration
#170    Failure to Allow UN Officials to Attend Arraignments
Repatriation

#171    Failure to Repatriate Prisoners Promptly
#172    Failure to Repatriate Seriously Ill or Wounded Prisoners
Contact with Families
#173    Denial & Delay of Correspondence Between Prisoners & Their Families
#174    Prisoners Have Not Been Allowed to Send Telegrams
#175    Failure to Compensate Dependents of Fatal Victims of Torture
Discrimination
#176    Sexual Abuse of Females
#177    Women Confined in Same Facility as Men
#178    Women Prisoners Searched by Men
#179    Discrimination Based on Nationality, Race, or Religion
#180    Elder Abuse
Treatment of Children
#181    Transfer of Children from Their Home Countries
#182    Failure to Obtain Permission from Parents or Guardians for Transfer of Their Children
#183    Incarceration of Children in the Same Quarters as Adults
#184    Failure to Provide Education for Imprisoned Children
#185    Withholding Parental Contact from Child Detainees
#186    Failure to Inform Parents of the Whereabouts of Detained Children
#187    Refusal to Allow Child Detainees to Receive Information
#188    Failure to Protect Child Detainees from Abuse
#189    Failure to Provide Social Programs for Child Detainees to Deal with Prison Abuse
#190    Failure to Establish Programs to Prevent Prison Abuse of Child Detainees
#191    Failure to Investigate Abuse of Child Prisoners
#192    Failure to Prosecute Prison Personnel Who Abuse Child Detainees
#193    Failure to Provide Recreational Activities for Child Prisoners
#194    Inhumane Treatment of Child Detainees
#195    Indefinite Detainment of Children
#196    Failure to Allow Parents to Visit Child Detainees
#197    Failure to Allow Child Prisoners to Have Legal Counsel
#198    Failure to Provide an Impartial Tribunal for Child Prisoners
#199    Failure to Provide Speedy Trials for Child Prisoners
#200    Failure to Provide Post-Confinement Programs for Abused Child Prisoners
#201    Presumption of the Guilt of Child Prisoners Before Trials
#202    Failure to Promptly Inform Child Prisoners of Charges Against Them
#203    Forcing a Child Prisoner to Incriminate Himself
#204    Failure to Allow Witnesses Testify on Behalf of Child Prisoners
#205    Failure to Allow Appeals from Trials of Child Prisoners
Disappearances
#206    Extraordinary Renditions
#207    Issuance of Executive Orders Authorizing Enforced Disappearances
#208    Failure to Prosecute Those Responsible for Enforced Disappearances
#209    Sending Prisoners to Countries Where Enforced Disappearance is Likely
#210    Failure to Disclose Basic Information About Victims of Enforced Disappearance to Appropriate Authorities
#211    Failure to Disclose Basic Information About Victims of Enforced Disappearance to Family & Legal Representatives
#212    Failure to Provide Verification of Release of Disappeared Detainees
#213   Failure to Inform Rendered Persons of the Reasons for Their Disappearance, Investigation of Their Case, & Plans for Their Future
#214    Failure to Release Disappeared Persons
#215    Failure to Return the Bodies of Those Who Die While Disappeared to Next of Kin
#216  Failure to Provide Reparation & Compensation to Victims of Enforced Disappearance
#217   Failure to Cooperate with NGOs Seeking to Rescue Victims of Enforced Disappearance

CRIMES IN THE POSTWAR OCCUPATIONS
American forces have remained in Afghanistan from 2001 and Iraq from 2003. In both cases, the United States has recognized that American forces as occupation forces. Because of the unhappy military occupation of Eastern Europe by the Nazis during World War II, the international rules applied to military occupation were strengthened from provisions in the Hague Conventions to the Fourth Geneva Convention and related international agreements. The most formalized occupation was the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA), which was headquartered in Baghdad from May 12, 2003, to June 28, 2004, under the direct control of L. Paul Bremer III. Nevertheless, the occupation continues so long as foreign troops are on Afghan and Iraqi soil but not subject to the authority of either government.
Re-Establishing Public Order
#218    Failure to Re-Establish Public Order and Safety
#219    Complicity with Pillage
#220    Failure to Apprehend and Prosecute Looters
#221    Failure to Provide Security for Hospitals
#222    Intimidation of Civilians from Living Ordinary Lives
#223    Failure to Stop the Theft of Cultural Property
#224    Failure to Protect Journalists
Civil and Political Conditions
#225    Failure to Respect the Legal Framework
#226    Failure to Allow Self-Government
#227    Failure to Recognize Local Courts
Criminal Justice Problems
#228    Unwarranted Interrogation of Civilians
#229    Collective Punishment
#230    Cruel Treatment of Civilians
#231    Unjustified Arrest of Children
#232    Unjustified Interment
#233    Transfer to Countries That Persecute Political Opinions
#234    Failure to Observe Existing Penal Laws
#235    Penalties Imposed for Past Acts
#236    Disproportionate Penal Servitude
#237    Interned Persons, Prisoners of War, and Common Criminals Accommodated and Administered Together
#238    Failure to Account for Missing Persons
#239    Failure to Ensure Fair Trials of Repatriated Prisoners
Economic and Financial Conditions
#240    Confiscation of Private Property
#241    Lowering Tax Revenues
#242    Secret Contract Awards
#243    Diversion of State Property for Nonmilitary Operations
#244    Privatizing State Assets
#245    Failure to Maintain Material Conditions of State Property
#246    Mass Unemployment
#247    Failure to Provide Re-Employment Opportunities
#248    Unnecessary Destruction of Private Property
#249    Unnecessary Destruction of State Property
#250    Failure to Provide Necessities of Daily Living
Discrimination

#251    Failure to Respect Religious Convictions
#252    Ethnosectarian Discrimination
#253    Discrimination in Awarding Contracts
#254    Gender Discrimination
#255    Dishonoring Women
#256    Discrimination Against Nominal Members of a Political Party
#257    Arrest of Persons for Pre-Occupation Political Opinion
Social and Cultural Problems
#258    Failure to Respect Family Honors
#259    Withholding News from Family Members
#260    Charging for Formerly Free Government Services
#261    Failure to Reopen Schools
#262    Failure to Restore Cultural Property Damaged by Military Operations
Health Conditions
#263    Providing Insufficient Food
#264    Providing Insufficient Medical Supplies
#265    Reduction in the Quality of Medical Care
#266    Reduction in the Quality of Public Health
The Role of Outside Organizations
#267    Flouting UN Recommendations
#268    Failure to Accept Relief Organizations
#269    Failure to Disseminate the Fourth Geneva Convention Text to Occupation Personnel

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